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耶鲁大学公开课:1600年以来西方社会的流行病

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  • 本字幕由人人影视翻译制作 www.YYeTs.com

  • 翻译:blackout 点滴梧桐雨 木易墨香

  • 校对:点滴梧桐雨 blackout | 时间轴:四泡泡 | 总监:blackout

  • The first thing I want to say is

    我首先想说的是

  • that there's a thesis to the course,

    这门课要写一篇论文

  • that you don't have to share,

    不需要你们彼此分享

  • but that I'd like to test

    但是我要用它来检验

  • for the next twelve or thirteen weeks.

    你们在以后十二至十三周内的学习成果

  • And that thesis is that infectious diseases

    论文内容要关于流行疾病

  • are too important to leave solely to the doctors.

    毕竟流行病如此重要而不只是医生的问题

  • Epidemics, in other words, have had an impact on history

    换句话说 流行病 我认为

  • that I would regard as equal to that of revolutions,

    它们的影响就等同于任何一次革命

  • wars and economic crises.

    任何一次战争和经济危机

  • They are part of the big picture of historical change,

    它们是历史变革的重要部分

  • and not some exotic special interest.

    而非仅仅是外来的特殊兴趣

  • Epidemic diseases have had an enormous impact on religion,

    流行疾病对宗教

  • on the arts, on the colonial expansion,

    艺术 殖民扩张

  • on the establishment of New World slavery,

    新世界奴隶制度的建立

  • on the rise of modern medicine,

    现代医学的产生

  • and on strategies of public health.

    公共卫生的策略都有着巨大影响

  • To examine this thesis,

    我检阅这篇论文

  • we won't be looking at all diseases.

    不会着眼于这些疾病

  • We'll be looking only at a subset

    我们只着眼于那些

  • of high impact infectious diseases

    给欧洲和北美带来巨大冲击的

  • that have affected Europe and North America.

    流行疾病中的一小部分

  • So this means certain exclusions.

    于是这就意味着要抛开某些疾病

  • We won't be looking at chronic diseases, such as cancer,

    我们不谈慢性疾病 比如癌症

  • heart disease, diabetes, asthma, obesity.

    心脏病 糖尿病 哮喘 肥胖症

  • We won't be examining occupational diseases

    我们也不检查职业病

  • such as miner's lung or asbestosis.

    比如矿工们的肺或者石棉肺

  • We'll eliminate also a whole range of tropical diseases

    我们也排除一些热带病

  • that haven't had a major impact on the industrial West,

    它们并未给工业发达的西方造成重大冲击

  • such as dengue, or sleeping sickness,

    比如登革热 或者昏睡症

  • or Chagas disease.

    或者查加斯疾病

  • 美洲锥虫病 人兽共患的寄生原虫病

  • All of these, and other diseases,

    所有这些疾病 还有其他未提及的

  • I would agree entirely are important and worthy of study,

    我完全同意它们都很重要而且值得研究

  • but it would take far more than a semester to examine them all,

    只是研究它们花费的远远不止一个学期

  • and lumping all diseases together

    而且将这些疾病混在一起

  • would lose all coherence.

    就完全没有连贯性了

  • Epidemic diseases-- that is, high impact,

    流行疾病 就是冲击力巨大的传染病

  • infectious diseases make sense intellectually

    它们将智力神经

  • as a separate category of analysis.

    分裂为单独的分析类别

  • That is to say they were, and still are,

    也就是说它们无论在以前还是当今

  • experienced differently from chronic disease,

    都与慢性疾病完全不同

  • and give rise to distinctive fears and anxiety.

    并且它们也引发了人们焦虑与恐慌

  • As you can see in your own day,

    就像现在你们所看到的

  • having heart disease can be a frightening

    虽然患心脏病十分可怕

  • and even a lethal experience.

    甚至是致命的

  • But it's qualitatively distinct

    但从本质上讲 它与得艾滋